Pennsylvania colonial brochure

Pennsylvania

History

Come to the wonderful colony of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania was settled in 1681, by and Englishman named William Penn. Penn asked King Charles II for a grant of land in the Americas. He was granted the land to settle the new colony. King Charles II named it Pennsylvania, which means "Penn's Woods" in latin.

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The colony of Pennsylvania was settled because William Penn believed in Religious Freedom. The English government allowed the church to control the government and make laws concerning religion and based on religion. The new colony was Penn's "Holy Experiment", because of the new ideas being introduced. Pennsylvania was a proprietary colony, because Penn had ownership and could decided what laws were made and how the colony would operate. Pennsylvania was known as the "Breadbasket of America" during colonial times because most of the products and resources were shipped in and out of Pennsylvania's ports. Native Americans lived in the land before Penn came. The main tribe of Native Americans were the Lenni-Lenape. There were also smaller tribes such as the Nanticoke tribe, the Shawnee tribe, and the Susquehannock tribe.

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Geography

Pennsylvania has extraordinary geographic features. It was part of the Middle Colonies. When viewing the landscape of Pennsylvania, you'll notice that it is mostly made up of mountains, rivers, valleys, and forests. It also has rich and fertile farmland that is useful for agriculture. The colony to the north of Pennsylvania is New York, and to the south of Pennsylvania is Maryland and Virginia. To the east of Pennsylvania is the colony of Delaware, and to the west of Pennsylvania is undiscovered land.

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The Delaware river acts as a border between New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Some landforms/geographic features in Pennsylvania are the Allegheny Plateau and the Appalachian Ridge and Valley. These landforms make up the scenery and environment that attracts many settlers.

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People/Culture

Pennsylvania is an extremely diverse colony full of many religions and nationalities. The groups of people that settled in Pennsylvania were Quakers from England, Whales, and Ireland, German Protestants, and Scotch Irish people. The majority of settlers immigrated to Pennsylvania between 1710-1750. If you looked into the deep religious history of Pennsylvania you would find many different religions. The most common religions in Pennsylvania were Anglican, Catholic, German Protestant, and Quaker. Other religious groups included Scotch-Irish, Amish, Mennonites, Moravians, Dutch Reformed, and Ephrata Cloister. In Pennsylvania, there was a large variety of jobs available. Common occupations were blacksmiths, carpenters, shoemakers, tailors, bakers, and indentured servants. One tradition, which was originated in the town of Ephrata, called fractur, was a common style of printing and decoration. The education in Pennsylvania was excellent in quality. Children learned how to read, write, and do math. The Frame of Government stated that all children should be able to read and write by the age of 12. One of the first schools in the colony was the William Penn charter school, which was established in 1869. Eventually, education was open to boys and girls.

In rural areas, people were independent. They did not rely on anyone for food, shelter, or clothing. They grew their own crops, raised their own livestock, and made their own clothes. Men worked in the fields and in the forests, while boys did chores. Women stayed in the house to cook and make clothing, while the girls also did chores. On holidays, people took time off from their work to celebrate the holidays. In the cities, people had more supplies than they needed, so they bartered or traded for other goods they needed.

Economics

Pennsylvania has abundant resources such as fertile soil and farmland, an array of different trees, forests, iron ore deposits, and wild animals. The main source of labor was land. You could use it for agricultural purposes like growing crops, or you could harvest and mine the iron ore located in the ground.

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The land also includes rivers and forests. Rivers could be used to turn watermills, which could ground flour and meal. Forests could be used for lumber to sell. Most people earned a living from agriculture (farming), manufacturing (building/products), and commercial sales (shop/store). Products that were made in Pennsylvania were guns, crops/produce, and tools. Products that were traded were crops/produce, lumber, iron ore, clothing, and livestock. Pennsylvania was one of the biggest and fastest growing colonies in the Americas. The largest city in Pennsylvania was Philadelphia, which means "city of brotherly love" in latin. 120,000 settlers total lived in Pennsylvania, and about 15000 lived in the city of Philadelphia.

Government

Pennsylvania has a well-run government that is very organized. Elections were held for people to be elected into government positions. People were elected or voted into positions by citizens of Pennsylvania. Male citizens were the only people who could vote for the government. Government Positions in Pennsylvania include the Council, the Assembly, and the Proprietor/Governor. The Council members were highly ranked and made laws and courts, founded cities, and established schools. Assembly members were less important and were able to approve or reject laws created by the Council. The Proprietor was the owner of the colony, and could decide how the colony works and what laws could be made. William Penn was the proprietor of Pennsylvania.

The first Constitution of Pennsylvania was written by William Penn. He called it the "Frame of Government". The many different religions in Pennsylvania did not affect the laws in the colony. The church was separated from the government, so that the government couldn't create laws that required everyone to follow one religion. Instead, people could practice their own religion freely. This is one reason why Pennsylvania is so peaceful. Another important law besides the Frame of Government was the Second Frame of Government. It was made after citizens were unhappy with the original Frame of Government, so Penn created the Second Frame of Government. It gave people more say in the government. The last important law was the Charter of Privileges, which was also created after colonists were unhappy about the Second Frame of Government. The Charter of Privileges gave people more control over what the government was doing and what laws they created by giving the Assembly control over law making and taxation. It also granted Delaware it's own legislature, so its delegates wouldn't have to travel all the way to Philadelphia.

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Works Cited

Appalachian Mountains. Digital image. Usgs.gov. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://energy.er.usgs.gov/images/regional_studies/appalachians/app_mtns2.jpg>.

Crops. Digital image. Circles Hokaido University. Web. 9 Dec. 2004. <http://circle.cc.hokudai.ac.jp/nepal/bisauni/archive/vol1/photo/article%206.gif>.

Crops. Digital image. Circles Hokaido University. Web. 9 Dec. 2004. <http://circle.cc.hokudai.ac.jp/nepal/bisauni/archive/vol1/photo/article%206.gif>.

DeFord, Deborah. Blacksmiths. Photograph.

DeFord, Deborah H. Pennsylvania. [New York]: Children's, 2004. Print.

DeFord, Deborah. "Pennsylvania, 1775." Map. Pennsylvania. Children's, 2004. 16. Print. Life in the Thirteen Colonies.

DeFord, Deborah. "The Original Thirteen Colonies, 1775." Map. Pennsylvania. Children's, 2004. 0. Print. Life in the Thirteen Colonies.

Hintz, Martin. The Pennsylvania Colony. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2006. Print.

Italia, Bob. The Frame of Government. Photograph.

Italia, Bob. The Pennsylvania Colony. Edina, MN: ABDO Pub., 2001. Print.

Native Americans. Digital image. Msn.com. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://estb.msn.com/i/DB/987D7A515729AF6391BCAA50EFDA.jpg>.

Prentzas, G. S. A Primary Source History of the Colony of Pennsylvania. New York: Rosen Central Primary Source, 2006. Print.

Somervill, Barbara A. Pennsylvania. New York: Children's, 2002. Print.

Somervill, Barbara A. Pennsylvania. New York: Children's, 2009. Print.

Wiener, Roberta, and James R. Arnold. Pennsylvania: the History of Pennsylvania Colony, 1681-1776. Chicago, IL: Raintree, 2005. Print.

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