New Hampshire Colonial Brochure

New Hampshire


New Hampshire was settled in 1619, by John Mason, who was granted a land share by King James I.

John Mason

Martin Pring was also important in the discovery of New Hampshire as he was the first to actually explore it. Mostly fishermen, traders and lumbermen settled New Hampshire.

New Hampshire was mainly settled for England to benefit from trade between Native Americans and the West Indies, as well as receive resources and products made in the New England Colonies. New Hampshire became a royal colony under direct control of England.


New Hampshire was located in the New England colonies. It had many physical features such as stony soil and dense forests. Significant land marks include the White Mountains. New Hampshire was located between the Merrimack and Piscataqua Rivers, which both act as natural “borders”.

Colonial New Hampshire

Merrimack River

New Hampshire was surrounded by New York, Maine, Massachusetts and, to the East, the Atlantic Ocean. Strawbery Banke was a small town and plantation owned by the Mason family located at the mouth of the Piscataqua River.

Map of Strawbery Banke

Mostly fishermen settled there, since it located near a body of water, however some shipmakers went there as well.

People and Culture

One of the biggest group of immigrants who settled New Hampshire were the “Scotch-Irish”, immigrants who came from Ulster in Ireland. They bought land in New Hampshire in 1719, and founded the town of Londonderry.

In addition, New Hampshire experienced a large migration of colonists from Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts. Immigrants from the British and West Indies were also common. Christianity was the most commonly practiced religion in New Hampshire.

The four main towns of New Hampshire began schooling by 1647, when a law was passed that all towns of 50 or more people must have a school and teacher. The teacher would usually be paid with taxes. Religion was also heavily tied with a colonist’s lifestyle, and by law, you had to keep the Sabbath day Holy by going to church.

Most colonists would live a simple, yet difficult lifestyle. Most people believed that hard work would bring a sense of organized community. Because of this, entertainment wasn’t common in New Hampshire, but every so often, a town fair will be held. Games, contests, and sports are in the fairs, including wrestling, horse racing, and much more contests.

Native American conflicts were not very common in New Hampshire, as Indians and settlers got along quite well. However, one conflict, called King Phillip’s War, was very significant. King Phillip, or Metacom, was the leader of a local Wamponoag tribe, and waged a war with the settlers to gain their land back after settlers expanded onto it. However, the war ended when King Phillip was killed in August 12 of 1676.

King Phillip (Metacom)

New Hampshire’s slogan is “Live Free or Die, death is not the worst of evils”


New Hampshire is best known for its great supply of fish and lumber, however furs, salt, and livestock can also be found in New Hampshire. Most colonists make products out of these resources such as axes, knives, pots, blankets, and clothing. These products are of value to the local Native Americans, and they will trade furs for these items.

There are several jobs and occupations in New Hampshire, such as fishing and lumbering, the main sources of labor. However, there are a couple other jobs such as ship making and teaching at New Hampshire’s schools. Teachers are paid with taxes.

Lumbermen move logs down to a sawmill, a difficult task but worth the labor. Fishermen, on the other hand, will go out every season to catch fish and dry mainly for trading.


New Hampshire was created using the Council of New England, which granted John Mason a charter for the Locania Company, which Mason would use to aid the development of New Hampshire

However, in 1635, John Mason suddenly died at age 49, and Massachusetts claimed to have control over New Hampshire, thus occupying it. Puritan beliefs spread throughout New Hampshire following this.

In the 1650s, the Mason family signed a petition and sent it to the General Court claiming that they have rightful ownership of Strawbery Banke and other lands in New Hampshire, but by the end of the 1650s, New Hampshire was almost completely occupied by Massachusetts Bay Company.

Works Cited

Auden, Scott, Alan Taylor, PH.D, and New Hampshire Historical Society. “Map of Strawbery Banke.” Map. New Hampshire, 1603-1776. National Geographic. Print. Voices From America.

Auden, Scott. New Hampshire, 1603-1776. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2007. Print.

Davis, Kevin. The New Hampshire Colony. Chanhassen, MN: Child’s World, 2004. Print.

Deady, Kathleen W. The New Hampshire Colony. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2006. Print.

H Net. King Phillip (Metacom). Digital image. H Net. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <>.

Haulley, Fletcher. A Primary Source History of the Colony of New Hampshire. New York: Rosen Central Primary Source, 2006. Print.

Landscape Imagery. Merrimack River. Digital image. Landscape Imagery. Web. 7 Dec. 2010. <>.

Landscape Imagery. Merrimack River. Digital image. Landscape Imagery. Web. 7 Dec. 2010. <>.

National Galleries. King James I. Digital image. National Galleries. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <>.

National Geographic Society, Scott Auden, and Alan Taylor, PH.D. “New Hampshire Colony circa 1755.” Map. New Hampshire, 1603-1776. National Geographic. Print. Voices From America.

Old Pictures. John Mason. Digital image. Old Pictures. Web. 7 Dec. 2010. <>.

Teitelbaum, Michael. New Hampshire. [New York]: Children’s, 2004. Print.

Wiener, Roberta, and James R. Arnold. New Hampshire: the History of New Hampshire Colony, 1623-1776. Chicago: Raintree, 2005. Print.

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